The Syriac Catholic church
In 512, after the Council of Chalcedon.
After the Council of Chalcedon (451), the Greek Catholics of Antioch progressively adopted Chalcedonian Christology, whereas the Syriac Catholics of Antioch adopted Monophysite Christology. This explains the schism with Rome and Constantinople. Jacques Baradée establishes a “Jacobite” monophysite hierarchy distinct from the Antioch patriarchate.
At the start of the 8th century, the Arabs arrive in Mesopotamia and Syria. The Syriac church is persecuted by the Byzantines (9th century), the Arabs (10th century), the Mongols (13th century), and Tamerlan (15th century).
In 1557, the patriarch Ignatius Nemet Aloho re-established ties with Rome. Under Ignatius Andrew Akijan, appointed patriarch in 1662, the church is renamed the Syriac Catholic Church, but opposition to a union with Rome persists until 1783.
This church, whose patriarch resides in Lebanon, is known as both the Syriac and Syrian Church.
It has approximately 175,000 faithful. The Jacobite Syriac church is based in Damascus. It has 750,000 faithful.